Complete 5 pages APA formatted article: The Relationship Between Short-Term Memory and Working Memory. The paper will discuss short-term and working memory in terms of the underlying relationship between the two.
A cognitive system that allows an individual to undertake his/her daily activities is best described by short-term memory (Kolb & Wishaw, 2009). Everyday conversations hold up as examples in this case. Reception, storage, and maintenance of information under the short-term memory factor are brief. This means that information can only be held for a short period, after which the information is either discarded or forgotten depending on the cognitive process in play at the time. The implication of this memory is that people can only hold information and retain data up to a given level, which in most cases relate to the task at hand. In other words, short-term memory exhibits a limited capacity, brief information holding, and discarding and/or forgetting what is held in that memory (Cowan, 2008).
The memory span of an adult relative to short-term memory is approximated at seven unrelated items from a possible five to nine items (Miller, 1956). This capacity varies across individuals, and it notably starts to decline after it hits its maximum in adulthood. Short-term memory is influenced by a number of factors, all of which determine the underlying memory capacity. These influential factors include rehearsal, attention to detail, interference, and prior knowledge relative to the information handled at a given point in time (Gathercole, 2001). Ultimately, these aspects affect, in one way or another, the underlying cognitive outcomes.
Working memory is defined as a capacity system that is limited in nature, which enables temporary storage and manipulation of information as people perform their everyday tasks (Baddeley, 2003). The capacity factor in the definition of working memory brings short-term memory into focus. Short-term memory dynamics prompted an insightful examination of working memory by cognitive psychologists.
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